§ Learn to learn 📚
Oussama Ammar, Co-founder at The Family


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§ today we are talking about how to learn to learn learn to learn is a kind of a new subject that was not released 30 before learning always have been seen as a very natural process for years and centuries when people wanted to learn something they just have to do it and learning look like a lot in many aspect to the sport sport for many years was done only by children and specialized people before if you tell someone that you are doing some sport it means two things it means on one sign that you are children so it's not really important you have a lot of free time because you're all children all it means that your sport men and you are doing competition and so you are doing specialized sport and between these two field it was never coming to an idea of someone that he wants to do sport as an amateur during the last 40 years the sport industry kind of structure it around lot and lot of offering everyone now can become sport people and can do sport in this way if you see the thousand of way of doing sport you sometimes wonder who invented all of them how can you torture in so many ways some so so many people and of course educational look like bit like sport for very long time educating learning something was something you do as a children because you have a lot of time so learning was seen as not being prepare we add this opposition for a long time between being an expert and learning something if it you learn something it means you are not an expert on the other side if you are telling people but you long sorry if you tell someone that you are old and you are learning something it means that your teacher or professor because learning something after a certain age was seen as something that only teacher scientist professor we're doing and the world change and the world change in three ways the first one that is very important is that internet med accessible everything we can learn and I think the real fragmentation in this world are not between the people that are learning something the people that know something is people that don't it's more between the people that know that they can learn anything and the people that don't know that we can learn something if we need it so for example let's say before you will do math if you are mathematician they were a natural correlation between mu you are as an expert and what you can learn why because the knowledge was totally an accessible we don't imagine how much worse link a logical link between expertise and lack of information expert exists because you cannot know what we know with a low price of access if you can access to what we know at a very low access price then where expertise doesn't mean that much because basically you can do math even if you are not a mathematician you can teach yourself math in 2019 at any age and maybe will be difficult maybe will not be easy but there is no reason you don't get to that point so second thing that change the world so much is that the fact that the knowledge become a commodity over Internet had an impact on who can learn what and how spread the access to knowledge is so the way you can see that is that all of us our real superpower is not so much how much we know but how fast we can learn so everyone in this room watching this video online have exactly something called the delta of learning so this Delta represent how much we can learn and how fast we can learn and of course that Delta is different subject by subject and we will come down to that but basically it means that at any point in time you can decide to start to get this asset in your favor and very something that is really strange is that if you learn things not in theory but for very practical use let's say you are building a company and you need to teach yourself about something so path of teaching yourself will be a shortcut because basically you are not needing to know everything about the field when you learn things in school you learn then in theory so basically you have to learn every aspect of the field wherever you need it or not so you have this whole set of things that you need to learn maybe you just need that small path but you need to learn all this surface because cool not exactly know that you need only this path when you learn things practically you learn them by practice and so it means that you access only to the knowledge that is necessary and that's a much more efficient way of learning and that doesn't need an impact on the third aspect is that cross learning effect are becoming more and more important let me explain that during the wool twentieth century we started to specialize people so the knowledge become a tree and that tree add more and more branches and these branches became more and more specialized so this tree of knowledge grew incredibly during the 20th century but this tree of knowledge made it super inaccessible to people to be able to access knowledge of other branch of the trees so let's say your mathematician doing algebra specialized in cryptography okay when you are in this branch and you have no access to geometry or you have no access to solve a branch not meaning that you don't have the tools to do it just meaning that you are on the path of knowledge that is so large but you don't have time to pick another field now let's say you do that through practice you don't try to learn the branch but you just try to get whatever you need in any field what happened people start to that one was good I was thinking of something else so people started to find path in knowledge and cross knowledge that were impossible to imagine we exist I will give you a simple example google when they were built they needed to build an infrastructure of servers and we didn't have the money to build the kind of infrastructure as usual web company at that time we're building we started to look about who is able to manage and gather a whole bunch of information and treat it efficiently in any industry and they realize that there were something doing that super efficiently called the brain we started to study how the brain works doing that not as surgeon or cognitive scientist but as computer science people they started to be inspired by this paradigm and invented clusters and that totally revolutions the way we manage servers and the fact that you don't need to put all the data on a single computer but you can create distributed system because this rooted system are in your brain super natural that's a very concrete example of what happens when you learn something as a non expert you don't learn it to know it you'll learn need to use it and you start to use thing in of a different field in the new field another example we have a lot of lawyers at the family and they give us a lot of advice sometimes they are big contract victory and one of the things I did in my youth in that I studied a lot cybernetic so cybernetic is a science of communication and multi lighting system but each time a lawyer speak to me I always try to build a cybernetic thing in my head and so I kind of learn what they say faster than we can teach me because I have a system to represent the law that no lawyer knows and that gives me insight about things our own lawyer don't understand that Alpers had the family achieve a level of legal sophistication that very few company in the venture world F so you see that the direct impact between one field cybernetic and corporate law that kind of combine and merge in something that makes sense for everyone else and so the goal when you learn something is not so much about knowing the thing or evaluating that you know the thing or finding an artificial way that you know that you have my stone know it's to learn only things that you can use or you enjoy so there is basically two reason in 2019 to learn something for your pleasure and measuring pleasure doesn't make sense if you are a PD just continue if you are an IP just stop or because it's useful so one of the problem is that people think that learning to learn things it works like sports we can define you know like metrics like how many page they read by hours you know there's a lot of people that like to measure things like that how many things I learned today but knowledge doesn't work that way you can know very few things and have very deep insight like you can have a lot and lot of information in your brain and totally bein able to use it so you need to find a very natural way to process it and accept the fact that most of us are very in equal in our way of processing fat some of us are very analytical some of us are sensitive driven some of us like to hear things some of us like to watch things some of us like to read things biggest problem we have as a society is that we have a year key of the value of knowledge so very few people on this market we decided that school was the highest place to learn anything even if actually schools are one of the worst place to learn anything let's take a very concrete example what do you think is better for you to learn the language and go out in the street and mess up or going in school for seven years trying to get a lesson for example I did seven years of German apparently AD that's written I need 100 century to learn German I know how to say good and tag tight fair button I don't even know what it means but the teacher was telling me that all the time I think it's like don't write on the table every time I was drawing on the table he was saying tried for a button it's a button yeah I don't even know so so that's a very concrete example how much school is a very unnatural place to learn things the other thing is that we see and we do that with children we tell them that there is better way to learn things and others for example we tell them that reading book is better than watching movies a lot of movies as much more to teach you than any books and there are some books that are better than some movies but it's not possible to have an absolute scale because learning is not a passive it's not a passive process is a very active process and here start the biggest confusion of the century learning is not about being teach it's about teaching here's the biggest secret of how to learn to learn if you want to learn something the best way of doing it is just to teach it even small scale because teaching it perché in a position to know everything you understand and everything you don't teaching will pursue in the shame of being confused let's take an example I did not really understand what scalable means each time I try to teach someone what is scalability and failing to make anyone understand what exactly scalability is it kind of reminds me that I don't really know what scalability is and I need to face that and restart and restart again and again because if someone don't understand something it's not because it's not a good learner it's because you are not a good teacher and if you are a good teacher you can teach anything to anyone it's just a question of time so understand this very secret law of the universe on an infinite amount of time everybody can understand anything that's a trick so sometimes you need a smaller amount of time but let's take a very mental and thought experience imagine that I put you in a room okay with three books some food and water and I tell you there is no way you can exceed that room unless you solve this very complicated mathematical problem that is solvable and actually you have everything in the book to find the solution about that some of you are going to exceed that room in a day some of you are going to take 25 years but between 25 years and one day there is an infinite number of position what would be really cool if we do this experiment for real so let's say we kidnap people in the street randomly let's be good in our experience and we pass them in this room and we really have this attitude that we cannot go out without solving the problem how many of you do you think will really become good at math really fast actually a lot a lot someone in Stanford addicts that experiment yeah for real torturing people making fit so he did another way took students but them in the room and tell them that we don't exit unless we solve and they have only food and water for a few hours and people started to solve problem much faster and we were doing in a normal class why because we were skin in the game they were basically able to use the deepest effort the deepest energy we having themselves the deepest motivation that add them go against the obstacle and of course people underestimate the power of being skin in the game if you want to be a really good learner put yourself in position where you have no other choice when learning something there is two way of learning things you enjoy or you need it if you need it don't fake needed it put yourself in a position where it become a life of fred things and you will see that your brain is able to do things but you will not even realize so other opposite side of that is when you love something some of you are going to love certain fields we can feel fall in love we feel the same way that we kind of experience that with person so basically every field is like a person if i ask you to imagine any field of knowledge i think in your mind you can imagine how this person looked like we know how math look like we know how literature look like we all can ever will end by the way it will look like a very different way if we like it or not and I think representing knowledge as a person can help you knows which kind of person you want to hang out with and if you really like something if you really enjoy a feel you are going to spend more and more time with it and it's simple function of growth more time you spend in the field more you are going to more you are going to learn more you are going to compound the kind of knowledge you get access to what is the real mistake people do all the time is that we try to spend time with people they don't like and that's true in life and that's true in knowledge in the multiple things where we don't teach ours our children well you know when you are children you have a kind of a very natural instinct to what you like and what you don't like you know when you are kid there is people you enjoy and rich people you don't enjoy what is the first thing as a parents that we do with any kid we want that we live in society and they are not we're too weird so we teach them to hide the emotion and to deal with people that are different and they don't like and so we try to make them a little bit more open and that's fine as a society I mean I'm not telling you to do anything different with kids I'm just saying you to see what is a downside of that so downside of that is that we don't teach them how to hire because what is hiring someone hiring someone is about being paranoid it's about every single details about this person that is going to make you off and you don't want to do that you want to to be really sure that if you hire someone it's going to be great and the probability that someone great for someone else is great for you is very low same thing when we find a mate or with date or we go on tinder like most of the people on tinder I'm not paranoid enough we will tell you like how many dates people sell and how many times that can have been just avoidable by simple caricatural judgment of the picture it's easy but we are not trained to that because when we think that way we think that we are orrible person you need to be horrible in the way you learn you need to be selfish driven by yourself you need to only enjoy what makes you compound and compound is very natural for people that know where they are good at and and never try to go to their weaknesses one of the biggest trouble of the advice you get online around that is that if you want to be a good entrepreneur you need to be good at everything all the time I don't know who they are talking about if you look most of the great entrepreneur there are this kind of bunch weird people that have something really amazing inside them and everything else highly dysfunctional and most of the time there is a reason why they have something really really well in their self is because we compound for so much into that specialized so much that there is very low chance that they are average about everything else and think against in school in school everything is done to make you average there is a good reason why average when it's applied to people sounds like an in short if you tell someone that you are average it means that there is nothing we can connect on there is nothing we can really build up to and that's a big problem because as a person as an entrepreneur as anyone trying to achieve something special you cannot be average you need to be special how do you become special you become special by compounding in one field more than others so that come down to the question of specialization against generalization some people always ask me this question when do I know if I need to be a generalist or a specialist it's very easy you know it most of the people asking this question is because with hope wants to hear the answer so some of us are really good at specializing some of us are really good at being generalist but everybody dreamed to be a generalist because everybody that asked this question so I wanted to be a generalist because everybody asking this question in his heart is thinking like yeah but it looks so boring to be specialized at something is worried about the effect of specialization but most of the time it's not boring most of the time it's actually incredible to be specialized most of the time it's actually what makes you happy to be able to build up and others are generalist or average people they just like to know something at 80% first of all I never liked to go deep in anything it bought me so much but I know it I'd never tried I never tried to be a specialist because I never enjoy that fulfillment of mastery it's the difference between the fulfillment of mastery the question and the ability of repeating something until you are perfect I never enjoy perfection and the other thing that is just curiosity into your ability to always go to the next field both of them have done side the way to pick them it's to ask yourself which downside do you prefer the most because some people say oh if I'm a generalist I'm going to get lost I'm going to do so many different things that there is a point I will never do what is necessary or what I need to do and that's bad no it's not it's just the downside of being a generalist and that downside you need to love it as much as website because if you don't like the downside of your own decision but nobody is going to love them for you yeah so question is how much time do I need to invest on learning so that's a really good question you have to way of saying this question is do do you need to learn something or are you doing it as a pure gymnastic thing so we need to separate learning as a necessity from learning as a sports learning as a necessity is very uncommon there is only few moments in your life when you need to learn as a necessity you create a company you are discovering a new field you are building a new project you are you are doing something where basically you need to learn before doing and then you learn in short doing it's you are mastering it and so you are kind of an automated mode and start to question are you able to sustain that for a long time and some time it can be a really long time you basically can spend 30 years of 40 years of your life doing exactly the same thing or do you need to change and learn something new that's a hard question the new is not your friend there's a new isn't your enemy by nature because what is new always have the risk to be worse there is a good reason why people don't like to innovate you know I always love when when entrepreneurs make fun of old companies because we don't know how to innovate you know that's that's one of the thing that looks the most childish with entrepreneurs because entrepreneurs don't realize that the reason we love to innovate is because we have nothing to lose like if we were making a billion a year in profit are we going to be that innovative I don't think so most of the people don't realize how how conservative we become as fast as success come and by the way it's very funny to see it on a small scale you know you have some entrepreneur that reach five or ten million in revenue year and we start to be super worried of changing anything because we know that maybe we will go back to zero and we don't want to go back to zero so of course judging from the outside they always look great to be innovative like you know we want to celebrate the innovators but innovators exist because there is a lot of people that believe that they are bigger than their curriculum basically what an entrepreneur does when he build a startup he thinks me I'm bigger than my curriculum I deserve much better than what the life is offering me so I'm going to create a job that no one is giving to me and that can go through a huge learning process but what happened when you don't need to learn anything anymore then stop learning for joy learn for pleasure so question how much of your time can you give to that as much as you can like you should always in life hem to get more time for the things you love and of course if you love to go to sport in early days that's more less time to learn but you need to find somehow on the long term and iquili-brium so the question is not so much how do you accelerate at the beginning but how do you rate when you are successful because more you are successful and more you will need discipline to find time the problem of everyone having opportunities is not to say yes to the opportunities is to say no and if you need to give to save time to learn things you need to say no to lot of things and you don't define yourself but what you say yes to you define yourself by everything you say no to and that's why it's hard to have any kind of success because when you are successful you need to start making choices and choice in what you are going to learn is super important and that's why I think learning can become a daily habit one of the thing you can do is that is using everyone in your favour to teach you things you don't have time to teach yourself and that come down to ask question a good example of that is that each time I take a you were this day I asked the hueber driver to tell me a story or surprising story or something he learned from someone that he was really surprised to learn and you don't imagine the amount of information you will driver have just hearing the conversation of others hold a log in in the inverting you can even build a spying agency paying all the ural driver asking them to take notes on every meetings that have been taken in the in in via car and just writing downs in them of the people it will be huge amount of intelligence I don't know why NSA and CIA did not think about that warming up river will be actually that will be amazing not watering Abu Bakar will be an amazing source of intelligence and knowledge and knowledge is everywhere like for example one of my favorite game is when very something I don't understand its to ask every single person I meet until I understand it this question for example of not a few long ago we were like this kind of complicated conversation I had with Balthazar in our team that was like why the price of petroleum are going down and and the macro theory was supposed to go up and and I was surprised about that I was like doesn't make sense why is going down and so for few weeks every person I met I asked this question you know what happened when you do that is that a lot and a lot of people don't have a clue about why and you know what do they do they think about it and gives you an answer and most of the answer are wrong but that's fine because if you have enough of them you start to build a collective truth because if you ask enough people the same question so everyone that doesn't know about what we are talking about giving you answer help you kind of calibrate where is it true if where the truth is and you can do that on lot and lot of things so learning is in mindset especially in 2019 information is with peers information is with online you have ton of classes you just need to find you way your path to find the best way of using all this knowledge in your favor and finding way to use that knowledge to establish a better path for your entrepreneurship quest or your life or anything that is your goal at the moment why it happened the aunt who Nova tell Ponca yeah yellow party well justify yet lon okay sorry it says I had only behind the scene the parametric oh yeah so one of the consequence of that is the difference between continuous learning and discontinuous learning what I call continuous learning in this continuous learning are the thing that you can learn because you already have a very cold background and the thing that you cannot learn because you don't have the vehicle background yet so let me explain that basically people think that learning something depend about what people teach them but actually there is something called learning reception it's your ability to process the information that is sent to you in a way that is useful for you because you have the kind of right tools to understand them so basic thing that we all learn to do in school is to read and count and there are kind of two build block that we do all our learning around counting and reading are very fundamental skills to problem to that first we don't understand that learning to read and learning to count is a continuous process there is no like why do we learn that when we are six years old and then we are like oh it's done now it's not done actually you can do it all the time you can find better way to read and better way to count and there is other fundamental blocks so one of the things that is kind of tough is to acquire new fundamental blocks during your life so one way of doing that is to just study famous theory that's my personal AK so let me explain that in every field very is always a theory that is more famous than every other theory let's second example everybody here e equal MC - you know everybody know that that in physic is kind of badass because it's famous everybody knows I don't know let's say a B asked Hokies everybody heard about that dude you're not British but do you know what's a BS cop who sees so fundamental right of freedom No ok so a French example will be everybody heard about it often immortal okay that's pretty famous or or private property everybody heard about that so private property is a very famous Furion law it's kind of a principle that everybody share everybody heard about infinite numbers yeah did you know works helped me to know what is mainstream okay can someone give me a very famous chemistry law that this kind of mainstream love was yellow did you heard that when you were in college no he understood you know super under circuit two so transformed yeah you see you know that law but that was very profound implication in chemistry so basically you can learn fundamental blocks just by knowing what is behind any famous theory it's one of the perfect way to learn as many blocks as possible we call them as a family mental models is that the alp you process the information in a way that this kind of field process information and there is something you can do to be smarter that is very impressive it's to learn as many mental models as possible so for example if you pick a new language to learn language are great mental models try to pick a language that is in the new so for example if you know French learn English and if you know English and French learn Danish it's a good example if you are if you learn Spanish then go and learn Japanese because because you are going to learn new mental models when you learn the language you also learn how to think in this language and language are not equal in their way of thinking things for example Russian struggle with optimism and and private property much more than any other people on earth is because in their language there is really really hard time to define the position of things in Russian position of things is always in directively defined so like if you are Russian you don't feel in your language but you own things it's as simple as that so if you are a Russian and you want to do business the first thing you should do is to learn English on the opposite side English is only about property and position like if you look how English language is build is to make you capitalist did you ever notice that in English it's so easier to write a website to sell something that in French did you ever notice that like anyone that is a copywriter in French trying to apply copywriting selling points in French struggle why because the French language it's an T merchant the mental model of everything in French is to avoid selling anything to anyone it's a language that have been build to not been using commerce because French was deeply against Commerce we killed all our Protestants and keep the Catholic that they will kill the business in France that's an barthélemy it's a good example of how culture has an impact on history and how history has an impact on business as an entrepreneur you job is to go out of mental model and the only way to do that is discontinuous learning is that various moment in your life where you should pose and learn something totally new without having any usefulness of that or any other project that changing the way your brain is wired and more you do that most diversity of your brain will be and that your wires and more you will be able to have very very powerful thoughts because it has been proven again and again and again is that each time you open a new motor mental model in your brain it's like putting a windows in the house light coming stronger and if you want to have a bright house you need to open a lot of mental models that's why people that speak a lot of language are in average less racist than someone that speak only one it's factual it's not only because we speak multiple language so we are more open no it's just that because it gives them different perspective around the same thing and the language is just an example you have the same thing in math and the way to just know how to pick one it's just to trust that if something is famous is that there is a good reason of that if e equal MC do mc2 is famous is because in physic that theory means so much paradigm shift everybody knows the name of Kopernik because history I've met Kopernik super important and history is your friend there is like why everybody knows P tag or you know Peter girl when I say that you all look so desperate like it's like Lucifer kiss pit ago you know Pythagoras everybody know Pythagoras because this guy changed the paradigm in math until these days and he had an impact that history had select as a profound impact so history filter is one of the best filter is called the leaden effect so leaden effect is a fact that if something is history resistant it means that the people continue to cherish it as something important and transmit it years after years after years and that's why it's cool to know them because they help you see reality in a very different way so I don't know what is the right rhythm of doing that for example at the family we we love this mental model things we do it every month we try to take one day or two days to learn something in the new field like I don't know biology evolution accounting astrophysics whatever and the albers think so much about the startup because he helped us having very very different mental model the consequence of that is that it helps you be able to unlearn things faster everybody's obsessed about how you need to learn things and nobody talked about how sometime you need to earn learn things so unlearning is a very non natural process every sport people that have something wrong will tell you that is really really hard to learn something like sometimes like for example you have a gesture at golf that impeach you to swing better and the only way to get a better gesture is to unlearn your initial gesture and all that's also true in of a film or vehicle field like for example coders leave with that problem all time long we'll learn how to code with a certain paradigm with a coder here nobody ok so that's very intimate reference you'll learn to cut in a certain parroting when a new one come and you need to unlearn your way of seeing how to build a program and that's why when you are coder you spend a lot and a lot of time learning new technology all the time because you have no other choice if you want to survive some market change and market shift and that's true for anything if you're an accountant and you learn of the fields of human brain you are going to become a better accountant if you are a lawyer if you are a freelance if you are designer if you are see you if you are HR whatever you are each time you will learn to see the world with the eyes of another field you are going to do better and that will help you and learn what is not necessary in your field because various ton and ton of that is around and stuck to us and we cannot earn them because we don't have the right tool by the way I advise everyone to take at least one day a class in statistic statistic is a best filter tool of anything in life he helped you hand learn so many things there's so many things that you think are true because people in your field think that we are true but they are actually untrue because statistics show you that it's just a question of randomness and we are all fooled by randomness and and and that's an example of one field that you learn in this continuous way that is going to impact you in everything you see another one is finance like every entrepreneur should take a finance class at some moment finance ad think any business decision in a way that is absolutely different than any other way and help you make much better decision because finance help you represent everything as an investment and a return on investment and that's an amazing parroting to know if you are doing something right or not how much paper can absorb water editor yeah I will finish on two things so one of the reason people don't like to learn things it's because they have what we call limited believing transmittances he comes artist rapper what I thought I said to some and talked Saba marsh a busy limiting beliefs thank you so very something called limiting believes it's it's the idea that you believe something that impeach you of achieving your true potential there is a lot of truth behind that but there is also a problem with that it's to believe that very certain things that you cannot learn because you limit yourself instead of believing but very certain things you cannot learn because you cannot do so I don't know what is a part of biology in our ability to learn but you see it with very very small children all the time is that our brain is not wired the same way and there is nothing to go against the way our brain is wired so some of us for example I learned that recently is that our brain why write up us in optimist or pessimist way so some of us have an optimist brain and some of us have a pessimist brain there is a very good head conference that you can watch on that called optimist bias vs pessimist bias you know the funny thing is that this person discovering that discovered that if you send certain electricity voltage to a certain part of the brain you can transform an optimist and pessimist and a pessimist an optimist so basically it means that someone on this earth can take my brain and transform me in a pessimist one I think I have a huge optimist bias ah I'm doing startups so if you are not hugely optimist doing startup you don't but people will be like okay so why don't we do that why don't we not brain in the optimist where everyone you know a lot of time if something exists in nature is because this equilibrium was necessary to our evolution there is a very good reason for optimist to be surrounded by pessimist and there is a very good reason for pessimist to work with optimism there is also fields where being an optimist is super dangerous for example let me give you this up data if you have a optimist brain and you become a fireman your chance of dying are 200 time hires because you see the fire and you don't evaluate it correctly because your optimist if you do that with a start-up you lose bit of money if you do that with a fire you lose your life so you see there is good reason to have some pessimist people let's say you are run a nuclear Factory and you are highly optimist various high chance is going to end bad so of course that doctor kind of say that we need to let to look in certain profession if we need to be pessimist or optimist and not let optimist people go in pessimist one and vice versa and I like that because it remind me that if that true is true for optimists it's true for a lot of things there is a lot of mystery about how our brain is build and set up but refusing the natural 'ti of our brain is very dangerous the question is that of course brain are highly diverse and dispersed various kind of different kind of brain all over the world there is even a high chance theory that every brain is unique because it's quantum and that there is so much quantum allocation in your brain but it's like your DNA or your fingerprint your brain is really unique and that's an incredible evolution feature because it means that everyone on earth can have a very singular contribution but your job it's to become intimate with your brain and there is a lot and lot of contradictory message to that a lot of people are trying to find hacks and tips to learn faster when actually some of them only works with you so one good way of doing that is just experimenting everything but just learn to listen to yourself and trust yourself it's super important learning to learn is not so much about increasing the number of page you read or becoming deeper or more specialized or anything like that it's just about and during the process in a much more continuous way and that come down to practice and nothing else thank you very much

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